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پنجشنبه 1389/07/08 18:30

نگاهی مختصر و اجمالی به آزمون تافل آی بی تی

آزمون تافل ای بی تی TOEFL iBT امتحانی است که چهار مهارت شما را در زبان انگلیسی ارزیابی می کند. این قسمت ها عبارتند از مهارت خواندن و درک مفاهیم Reading ، مهارت شنیداریListening ، مهارت نوشتاری  Writing و مهارت گفتاری Speaking.  در ادامه این مهارت ها به اختصار شرح داده می شوند.

این امتحان توسط سایت رسمی سازمان ای تی اس برگزار ‌شده و در بیش از شش هزار موسسه در بیش از یکصدو سی کشور جهان پذیرفته می شود. امروزه تافل به عنوان یک آزمون جامع برای افراد غیر انگلیسی زبان مدرک ارزیابی برای ورود به دانشگاه های سراسر دنیا و همچنین برای کاریابی محسوب می شود. از سال 2005 تافل ای بی تی به میزان قابل توجهی جایگزین تافل مبتنی بر دفترچه Paper-based و تافل مبتنی بر کامپیوتر Computer-based شده است.  شرکت کنندگان این آزمون موظفند در محل آزمون در تاریخ و ساعتی که از قبل توسط سایت ای تی اس به آنها ارائه شده حضور پیدا کنند. امتحان بطور یکپارچه از طریق اینترنت برگزار شده و پاسخ های شرکت کنندگان برای مرکز تصیح ارسال می شود. فاصله زمانی بین شرکت در آزمون و دریافت نتیجه بر روی اینترنت حدود سه هفته است  و اعتبار این نمره دو سال می باشد.

از مزایای این آزمون می توان به چندین مورد اشاره کرد که عبارتند از اینکه برخلاف تافل قدیمی که بیشتر تاکید آن بر گرامر بود، این آزمون تمامی مهارتهای زبانی را پوشش می‌دهد علاوه بر این یادداشت برداری در این روش بر خلاف روش مبتنی بر دفترچه مجاز است که به داوطلب آزادی عمل بیشتری می دهد. این آزمون هر ماه چند بار برگزار می شود و به داوطلبین آزادی عمل بیشتری در انتخاب تاریخ آزمون داده می شود. این آزمون چهار ساعته و دارای چهار بخش است که هر بخش ممکن است یک یا چند مهارت را مورد آزمایش قرار دهد. توجه کنید که ممکن است یک یا چند بخش به صورت طولانی یهنی طولانی تر از حد معمول آن بخش ارائه شوند که در این حالت مشخص نیست کدام بخش از سوالها واقعا تصحیح شده و جزو نمره در نظر گرفته می‌شوند. وقوع این حالت به صورت تصادفی است.

تفاوتهای تافل ای بی تی با تافل های قدیمی تر:

تافل ای بی تی بخش جديدي به نام بخش گفتاري Speaking دارد که در مقابل بخش ساختار Structure در تافل هاي کتبي و کامپيوتري است که در آی بی تی وجود نداشته و حذف شده است. در ای بی تی گرامر بطور غيرمستقيم در تمام بخشهاي اين آزمون مورد سنجش قرار مي‌گيرد. سخنراني‌ها و گفتگوها در بخش شنيداري Listening طولاني‌تر شده‌اند و خلاصه نويسي Note taking نيز مجاز مي‌باشد. در بخش درک مطلب Reading نوع سؤالات متنوع‌تر شده بعنوان مثال از شرکت کنندگان خواسته مي‌شود اطلاعات را طبقه‌بندي کنند و يا جدولي را پر کنند. تايپ کردن در بخش نوشتاري Writing الزامي است. البته منظور این نیست که مانند یک تایپست حرفه ای تایپ کنید. همین مقدار که بتوانید حروف انگلیسی را به آسانی روی کیبرد پیدا کنید کافی است. فراموش نکنید که سرعت در تمامی بخش های تافل نقش به سزایی ایفا می کند و تقویت سرعت فقط نیازمند تمرین، تمرین و تمرین است.

سیستم نمره یا امتیاز دهی در تافل:

سیستم کلی ارزیابی نمره یک داوطلب در ای بی تی بر اساس مقیاس صفر تا صدوبیست می باشد که در واقع برای هر یک از مهارت ها سی نمره در نظر گرفته شده است که مجموع این نمرات تشکیل دهنده نمره نهایی داوطلب است. برای مثال:

26

28

24

22

Reading

Listening

Writing

Speaking

100

Total SCORE

 

برای مشاهده جدول دقیق و جدول مقایسه ایی سیستم نمره ای بی تی اینجا کلیک کنید.

قسمت های مختلف تافل ای بی تی:

۱- بخش خواندن و درک مطلب Reading

اين بخش از آزمون تافل معمولا از سه متن آکادميک تشکيل شده است که بعد از هر کدام چندين پرسش مطرح مي‌شود. در هر یک از اين متن‌ها در حدود 650 تا 750 کلمه وجود دارد. دو ويژگي اضافه شده به بخش درک مطلب يکي فهرست لغات و ديگري يک گزينه تجديد نظر مي‌باشد. فهرست لغات به شما امکان مي‌دهد که معني کلمات کليدي موجود در متن را بيابيد و با گزينه تجديد نظرمي‌توانيد بازگشته و در پاسخهايتان تجديد نظر کنيد.

o        برای مشاهده نوع سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده نمونه سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده پاسخ نمونه اینجا کلیک کنید. 

۲- بخش شنيداري Listening

این بخش از آزمون تافل توانايي شما را در درک مکالمات انگليسي، آنگونه که در آمريکاي شمالي صحبت مي‌شود، ارزيابي مي‌کند. بخش شنيداري تافل ای بی تی از دو مکالمه و چهار سخنراني درسي همراه با پرسشهاي متنوع تشکيل شده است.

o         برای مشاهده نوع سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده نمونه سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده پاسخ نمونه اینجا کلیک کنید.

 

۳- بخش نوشتاري Writing

اين بخش از آزمون تافل توانايي داوطلب در به کار گيري ساختار های گرامری و همچنین لغات و اصطلاحات، جهت برقراري ارتباط در يک محيط آکادمیک و دانشگاهي را مورد سنجش قرار مي‌دهد. اين بخش به دو قسمت تقسيم مي‌شود. قسمت تلفيقي یا integrated و قسمت مستقل یا independent که تايپ کردن براي هر دو قسمت ضروري است. در قسمت تلفيقي می بایست در ابتدا متن کوتاهي را بخوانيد که حدودا از250 تا 300 کلمه تشکیل شده است، سپس به يک سخنرانی کوتاه و مرتبط با متن گوش می دهيد. بعد از آن شما بايد با استفاده از اطلاعاتي که از متن و سخنراني بدست آورده‌ايد به يک پرسش پاسخ دهيد. به شما 20 دقيقه فرصت داده مي‌شود که پاسخ خود را که بايد بين 150 تا 225 کلمه باشد، بنويسيد. اما در قسمت مستقل independent بخش نوشتاري به شما 20 دقيقه فرصت داده مي‌شود که انشاء کوتاهي در حدود 300 کلمه درباره يک موضوع خاص بنويسيد.

o         برای مشاهده نوع سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده نمونه سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده پاسخ نمونه اینجا کلیک کنید.

 

۴- بخش گفتاري Speaking

اين بخش از آزمون تافل ای بی تی از شش قسمت تشکیل شده که دو قسمت آن به صورت مستقل independent و چهار قسمت آن به صورت تلفيقي integrated مي‌باشد که عبارتند از:

  • دو قسمت مستقل independent درباره موضوعات معمولي و آزاد. داوطلبان بايد با استفاده از دانش و تجارب شخصي خود در مورد يک موضوع خاص دیدگاه خود را تعیین کرده و آن را توضيح دهند.
  • دو قسمت تلفيقي integrated بر اساس خواندن و شنيدن که شامل يک متن کوتاه و يک سخنرانی کوتاه است. داوطلبان می بایست اطلاعاتي را که از اين دو طريق بدست مي‌آورند با هم تلفيق کرده و در پاسخ خود به کار گيرند.
  • دو قسمت تلفيقي integrated بر اساس شنيدن يک سخنراني يا گفتگوي کوتاه. داوطلبان می بايست نکات کليدي موجود در آنچه که مي‌شنوند را بطور خلاصه در پاسخ‌هايشان ارائه دهند.

o         برای مشاهده نوع سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده نمونه سؤالات اینجا کلیک کنید.

o         برای مشاهده پاسخ نمونه اینجا کلیک کنید.

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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TOEFL iBT Writing Question Types and Sample سه شنبه 1389/06/16 11:56

TOEFL iBT Writing Question Types and Sample

The writing section is now a standard part of the TOEFL iBT. Previously, a writing test was administered as a separate test (TWE) from the paper and computer based TOEFL. The iBT writing section is divided into two parts: Integrated Writing and Independent Writing.

Integrated Writing

Writing Based on Reading and Listening

Here you will read a passage about an academic topic. Then you will listen to a lecture about the same topic. You are permitted to take notes while you read and listen. You will be asked a question that relates to both the text and the listening. Your response should be 150-225 words. Hint: Look for three many points that are related. Your score will depend on the quality of your writing as well as how well you answer the question. After you have heard the lecture you will have twenty minutes to plan and write your response.

Example:

Reading:

In a vote that took place at the International Astronomical Union Conference on August 24th, 2006, Pluto lost its status as a planet in our solar system. Pluto was originally discovered in 1930 when scientists were searching for something that was interfering with Uranus's orbit. Though Pluto was estimated to be similar in size to Earth, it was later discovered that it was even smaller than our own moon, as well as many other moons. It is now known that there are thousands of planetary objects similar to Pluto, including Eris which is slightly larger than Pluto. Choosing to reclassify Pluto to a dwarf planet honors the fact that science is about making new discoveries. While it was a sad day for Pluto lovers, people in general have accepted the idea, and the next generation of children will grow up knowing only eight planets and thinking nothing of it. As Mike Brown, the astronomer who discovered Eris, noted following the IUC's decision, "science is self-correcting."

Next you will listen to part of a lecture on the same subject.

 

Transcript of lecture:

As you all likely know by now, Pluto has been officially demoted to a dwarf planet. What this means is that we will no longer include it as part of our solar system. The debate about whether or not Pluto should hold its status as a planet created such a conflict within the community of world astronomers that it has been called the Great Pluto War. The decision on whether or not to demote Pluto was put to a final vote by astronomers from around the world at the International Astronomical Union Conference. However, when I say from around the world, I don't mean worldwide. In fact, less than 10% of the world's astronomers voted, and most of those who were at the conference had already gone home by the last day when the vote took place. Of more than 10 000 potential voters, less than 500 took part, mainly because there was no way for them to cast their vote without actually being at the conference. Many astronomers believe that if electronic voting had been an option, Pluto along with two other celestial objects, would now be considered planets. Furthermore, the definition that was decided upon for a planet - that it must clear the neighborhood around its orbit - doesn't technically hold up, since Earth, Mars, Neptune, and Jupiter all have asteroids as neighbors.

The IUC decision disappointed many people outside the astronomy community too. You see, there are more than a few Pluto lovers out there. Some were so angry at the resolution that they began putting petitions together to have the ruling overturned. In New Mexico, where Pluto's discoverer was a resident, state officials have declared March 13th, Pluto Planet Day. Children in particular have a thing with Pluto and are perhaps the least willing to part with it. The name for the now dwarf planet was put to a vote in 1930. And incidentally, Pluto, which was chosen unanimously by a group at the observatory where it was discovered, had been submitted by a young schoolgirl.

Summarize the points made in the lecture, explaining how they cast doubt on the points made in the reading passage.

 

Sample Response

Pluto lost its status as a planet in our solar system at the International Astronomical Union Conference in 2006. The decision has been wrapped in controversy ever since.

The reading suggests that the decision was generally accepted and was based on the new scientific information that has been learned since Pluto's original discovery. However, the lecture refutes this idea, suggesting that the astronomy community was not fairly represented in the vote to demote Pluto to dwarf status, and that many people disagree with the decision.

According to the reading, Pluto was demoted due to its size. However, the professor points out that the reason Pluto was demoted was because it doesn't fit the new definition of a planet. According to the new definition, a planet must clear the neighborhood around its orbit. While Pluto does not, neither do other planets including Earth. Technically speaking, many planets have asteroids as neighbors, therefore, they do not clear their orbit.

Finally, the reading implies that people will soon forget that Pluto was ever a planet. In contrast, the professor talks of petitions and special ways that citizens are honoring the beloved planet Pluto. While the reading notes that children will not know any differently when they grow up without Pluto in their solar system, the professor claims that the lost planet will always have a place in children's hearts as it did from the very beginning.

 

Independent Writing

Writing Based on Knowledge and Experience

This section of the test asks you questions about common experiences. You will be asked to give your opinion and provide reasons and examples. You will not be required to have any previous knowledge on a topic. You will have 30 minutes to prepare an essay in response to the question provided.

Sample Question types:

  • Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Students should take out student loans to avoid working while studying. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
  • Some people think its better to live with a roommate. Other people prefer to live alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
  • It is better to grow up with siblings than without. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.
  • It has recently been announced that the public library in your area will be closed for the summer months for a major renovation and expansion. Do you support or oppose this plan. Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

 

Example:

Read the example of a student's brainstorming session and essay. When you are finished reading the example look at the checklist and find out why this student deserves a perfect score of 5.

Some people prefer to settle down and start a family in a rural area. Other people prefer the convenience of the big city. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

 

Sample Essay:

Does this scenario sound familiar to you? A young couple meets and falls in love in the city. Later they get married and decide to move to a rural area. They plan to start a family. This may have been the case years ago, but today more couples are choosing to settle down in the city. In my opinion a city has more to offer a new family than a rural area. These things include jobs, institutions, and support systems.

There are more work opportunities for young couples in a city than in a rural area. Unemployment is much lower in urban centers. One reason for this is that many jobs in rural areas are seasonal. It is more common for large companies to be based in the city. Even though the cost of living is higher in the city than it is in a rural area, people who work in the city tend to have much higher salaries. Furthermore, financial stress is a leading cause of divorce and leads to the break up of families.

The city offers important institutions such as the best hospitals and schools that rural areas don't always have. For instance, people who get sick or have babies in rural areas often have to travel to the city for medical attention. This can lead to bills and transportation problems. While their parents have to commute to work, kids sometimes have to travel a long way on a bus to school. All of the travel takes away from family time. In addition, kids who grow up in rural areas are less likely to go to post secondary schools. Most have to go to the city to get a good education.

It is more likely that a young couple will have the support of friends and family in the city than in a rural area. When a young couple moves away from this support system, they often feel isolated. On the other hand, small communities are usually close and friendly. It doesn't take long to meet new friends in a small town. People look out for each other and the crime rate is much lower. Even still, you can never replace your best friends and relatives. Consequently, birthdays and holidays feel lonely without grandparents and childhood friends to join in the celebration.

Living in the city is a new trend for young families. This is partly because people are starting families later. I have already established my career and home in the city. My friends and family and all of the things I need are here. When I meet my future spouse I hope he agrees to settle down in the city.

(445 words)

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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TOEFL iBT Writing Section سه شنبه 1389/06/16 11:49

TOEFL iBT Writing Section
(50 minutes)

TOEFL iBT Writing section measures students' abilities to communicate effectively in writing in academic settings. Students must be able to present their ideas clearly and in an well-organized manner. Responses are typed into a computer and automatically sent to the ETS's Online Scoring Network for evaluating and scoring.

TOEFL iBT Writing section includes two writing tasks:

Task 1: Integrated writing task (20 minutes)

(Reading/Listening/Writing) In the integrated writing task, test takers have 3 minutes to read a short text at about 230-300 words. The text is on an academic topic. When the time finishes, the reading text disappears. The reading text is followed by a lecture (listening) on the same topic presented from different perspective. The listening passage has the same length - 230-300 words. When the listening finishes, the reading text appears again with the question that test takers are expected to answer. A writing box on the screen is provided for typing the response. Students write a summary of the important points in the listening and explain how those are related to the reading text. During writing test, the reading passage is on screen and students can refer to it every time they wish to. The writing response should be between 150 and 225 words in length. There is a word counter that counts the words in the response.

Task 2: Independent writing task (30 minutes)

(Essay)In this task students are asked to write an essay that expresses and supports their opinion on a certain topic. The support should be based on test takers' own knowledge and experience. This task is the same as the one in the paper-based and the computer-based TOEFL. The length of an effective essay should be minimum 300 words.

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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TOEFL iBT Writing Tips سه شنبه 1389/06/16 11:48

Remember

  1. Listening during the independent writing task is played only once. Effective note taking could help to list important facts from the listening and avoid forgetting them.
  2. Both tasks are timed independently - 20 minutes for the integrated writing and 30 minutes for the independent writing.
  3. Allot some time to plan the outline of your essay. Scratch down some notes.
  4. Do not just list your opinion or choices. Use reasons, examples and details to support your opinion/choice.
  5. Use linking words to connect ideas and help the reader follow your thoughts.

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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Strategies for TOEFL iBT Writing Section سه شنبه 1389/06/16 11:47

Strategies for TOEFL iBT Writing Section

The last component in TOEFL iBT is the Writing section. It measures your ability to write in standard academic English. There are two tasks in TOEFL iBT Writing section - Independent Writing task and Integrated Writing task.

Within the Integrated Writing task the students are asked to demonstrate that they have understood material coming from different sources (reading and listening), that they can combine the information from those sources in a coherent, well organized, summarized written form, and that they may compare the information from those sources and draw conclusions from them. The time in the integrated task is as follows: You will have 3 minutes to read a passage of 230-300 words. The reading passage is hidden then and you will listen to a 2-minute lecture that is related to the reading passage. The listening may add new information or present a different point of view. You may take notes during both reading and listening part. Then the reading passage is shown again on the screen and you are given 20 minutes to write a response to a question. The response should be between 150-225 words.

Within the Independent Writing task students are asked to write an essay on a given general question. The purpose of this Writing task is to measure the students' ability to state their opinions or express their comments on topics which are based on their personal knowledge and experience. The students should also support their ideas and opinions with examples or details. Students are given 30 minutes to write their essays. The essay should be approximately 300 words.

 

Writing Preparation Strategies

Practice writing in English on a computer keyboard. There is no other way in TOEFL iBT than typing your response. So, practicing on keyboard will help you a lot.

Build your vocabulary systematically. Develop a wordlist with new words and devote time to learning these words, try to include them in your speaking and writing practice systematically.

When you practice writing try to use a wide range of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Do not fear to use new words and grammar patterns. That is a way to learn them and use them appropriately. Using rich vocabulary and variety of grammar is looked upon favorably by the raters.

Learn the essay structure very well and follow this structure closely in your practice and in your real exam. The essay is comprised of three components: Introduction, body and conclusion. Each component has its important features.

Practice organizing your writing. Before starting your written response allow 2-5 minutes to make an outline of your essay. Do not worry that the time is running, a good outline will save you lots of troubles and time while writing. The essay outline should include the major ideas for the paragraphs in 2-3 main phrases per paragraph, as well as some examples and supporting details. Do not write complete sentences, but some words and phrases that may help you follow that outline and add additional information to develop a well-organized and coherent essay.

Learn to use transition (linking) words to switch between different ideas, add information, provide examples, compare points, etc. Such words are: furthermore, in addition, for example, for instance, on the other hand, to sum up, first, second, etc.

Be time effective. At the beginning of your practice you may not comply with the time for the particular writing task. However, each other time you write, try to get closer to the time requirement for this task.

Monitor your own progress. Ask your tutor to evaluate your writings in accordance with the appropriate TOEFL iBT Writing Rubrics. For best accuracy, take some writing components which are scored by professional TOEFL iBT Teachers. You will be provided with accurate and constructive feedback with guidelines on how to improve your writing and how to continue your TOEFL iBT preparation.

For the independent writing task you will have to write on familiar topics. Make a list with familiar topics and practice writing on each of them. Do not forget the essay structure. Make an outline and follow it closely. State your opinion or preference and support it with examples and details.

An important skill to help you on the integrated writing task is the Paraphrasing. Paraphrasing involves connecting the ideas from the source material in your own words. Practice paraphrasing purposefully. Do not just rewrite what is stated but write selectively (only the important points) in your own words.

At the exam strategies

Do not forget to allot some time before you start your response to organize your writing - the outline. It will save you time and trouble. Follow it closely.

Pay attention to the time. Do not forget that you have limited time for both tasks. If you have a minute left, do not move to the next section. Make a quick review on what you have done. You may find errors and correct them.

Do not extend you writing well above 300 words for the independent task. For the integrated task it is important that you write between 150 and 225 words.

Use appropriate signal and linking words to switch between ideas, to add information, etc. That helps the reader to follow your writing easily.

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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TOEFL iBT Note-Taking شنبه 1389/06/13 15:34

TOEFL iBT Note-Taking

 When you sit for the TOEFL iBT test, you will be allowed to take notes in the Listening, Speaking and Writing sections. Effective note-taking is essential for TOEFL as you will receive a lot of information and it would be impossible to remember all of it. Good notes will facilitate your responses and directly affect your TOEFL iBT score.

 

Why should you develop the skill of note-taking?

 • It keeps you focused;

• It helps you remember information;

• It helps you answer the questions and organize your spoken or written responses.

 

Note-taking strategies

 • As you listen, focus on the main points and ideas. They can be recognized by the pause that is made before the essential information, by the repetition of some information, the emphasis that is placed on certain points, word signals (…two main aspects…, …second…,…essential…) etc.;

• Concentrate on important words, like nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, also names, dates, numbers, etc.;

• Listen carefully to the questions both professors and students ask and answers given – they often refer to major ideas;

• In conversations – identify the main problem/need, the solution and the main participants in the conversation, as well as the one who is more important or whose problem/need is the topic of conversation;

• Do not write down everything you hear, for example you can easily omit auxiliary verbs, determiners, pronouns and prepositions;

• Identify how the information is organized: the stages of a process, major points to minor points, problems and solutions, causes and results, etc.;

• Organize your notes in some logical form – graph, list with major points and sub-points, flow chart, etc.;

• Write clearly, as the notes will do you no good afterwards if you can’t read what you have written;

• Use abbreviations and symbols.

  

Abbreviations and Symbols

 with – w/

regarding, about – re

limited - ltd

without – w/o

difference – diff

through - thro

at - @

reference – ref

though - tho

about, approximately - ~

especially - esp

important - imp

times – x

opposed to - vs

possible - poss

that is – i.e.

and so on – etc

probable - prob

for example – e.g.

department – dept

number - #, no

because – b/c

page – p compare - cf

before – b/4

pages – pp

or - /


 

• You can use the first syllable of the word and drop the others: reference – ref;

• You can omit the vowels from the words: people – ppl, problem – pblm;

• You can use an apostrophe: admitted – adm’d;

 

Note-Taking Methods

 Outline format

 In this format you can take notes in the form of a list with main points, then sub-point, etc.

 For example:

I. Cocoa

a. Production

i. Harvesting

1. Detail

2. Detail

ii. Processing

1. Detail

2. Detail

iii. Chocolate

1. Detail

2. Detail

b. Health benefits

 

Mind mapping

 A mind map is an image centered diagram that represents semantic or other connections between major ideas. For example, it can graphically illustrate the structure of a plant, the connections between certain major points, etc.

 Here is how you can take notes by using this method:

1. Write the topic in the center;

2. Each key word/phrase should be alone on its own line;

3. The lines should be connected to the main topic;

4. Organize the ideas by some hierarchy, numbers or outlines.

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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TOEFL iBT Summarizing for Writing شنبه 1389/06/13 15:31

TOEFL iBT Summarizing

 Summarizing can be applied not only when you sit for the TOEFL iBT exam, but in your academic studies, your employment or even everyday life. As for the TOEFL iBT exam, you will need the strategy of summarizing in all sections of the test, so it is essential to master it.

 What is summarizing?

 Summarizing is actually expressing the main idea(s) of a source material into your own words, including only the main point(s). Summaries are shorter than the original; they are actually the reduction of a large text, lecture or conversation to its main points: the main topic, main idea and supporting details. We summarize by cutting off the excessive information, the additional examples and by focusing on the key words and phrases that convey the general idea of the source material.

 To summarize you need to:

 1.      identify the main ideas;

2.      identify the key details and then use them in the summary;

3.      simplify larger ideas;

4.      identify: Who, What, When, Where, How, and Why;

5.      make the summary clear, assuming that the target reader or listener has not gone through the source material that you have gone through and they have no idea what it is about.

 What should you include in the summary?

 In the summary, you should include only the basic information, which conveys the main idea of the source material and its supporting details. If you include examples in your summary, do not forget to explicitly connect them to the idea they are supporting.

 Here is how you can organize your summary:

1.      first state the main idea;

2.      state the main stages of thought;

3.      state the subordinate ideas and the relationships between those ideas;

4.      state the conclusions in the source material.

 What shouldn’t you include in the summary?

1.      Do not add any new information;

2.      Do not state your personal opinion in the summary.

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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TOEFL iBT Paraphrasing for Writing شنبه 1389/06/13 15:25

What is paraphrasing?

 When you paraphrase you actually explain or present the information from a certain source in your own words or in a more coherent way. Generally, we can say that a paraphrase is more detailed than a summary, but it also presents and accents on the main ideas of a certain source material.

 Why do you need paraphrasing?

 The ability to paraphrase will be an asset for the Integrated Speaking and Writing sections of the TOEFL iBT test. It will also help you remember and comprehend the main ideas from the texts and lectures. Apart from that paraphrasing is also essential for the further academic success of every student.

 How do you paraphrase?

In order to paraphrase effectively, you need clear notes.

Here are a few steps to follow:

 

  • Take notes while listening or reading – don’t write full sentence, note down the main idea only.
  • Check your notes and decide how you can explain the main idea to a person who has not read or listened to the information you have heard or read.
  • Express your main ideas orally or in writing by using synonyms or similar expressions, different word order or sentence structures. For example, instead of compound words, you can use one word and keep the same idea.

 How do you learn to paraphrase?

 Here are a few things you can do:

  •  Read passages or listen to lectures as many times as you need to fully understand the idea of the source material.
  • Take notes while you read or listen. Do not copy the words and expressions from the source; you can use synonyms in your notes. Adopting this strategy will save you time when you prepare for your writing or speaking.
  • Use the notes to present the main idea by simplifying the structures and expression.
  • Go back to the source material and check if you have paraphrased the main ideas appropriately.

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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TOEFL iBT Transitional Words for Writing شنبه 1389/06/13 15:23

Transitional Words

Transitional words, called also linking words or signal words, are of huge importance for building your written and spoken responses at TOEFL iBT Exam. As the name suggests these words help you to move from one idea to another in a smooth and coherent way. They also signal the reader or listener what will follow after the transitional word. That is why transitional word will be helpful not only to do better in your TOEFL iBT Speaking and TOEFL iBT Writing but also to better comprehend the information presented in the TOEFL iBT Reading and TOEFL iBT Listening sections.  The use of transitional words is not only limited to the Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL®) but also to any other English tests, like  IELTS (International English Language Testing System), FCE (First Certificate in English), CAE (Certificate in Advanced English), CPE (Certificate of Proficiency in English), etc.

In this document we provide a list of some transitional words and their usage within the text. We do not claim that this is the complete list of transitional words, but we may state that it covers the most common transitional words. Studying this list will greatly improve the organization of your responses and thus enhance your chances of better result at TOEFL® iBT Exam.

Transitional Words Grouped according to their Purpose

To add extra information


  • and 
  • also
  • additionally 
  • alternatively 
  • and then 
  • apart from
  • as well
  • as well as
  • besides
  • besides that
  • coupled with
  • equally important
  • finally
  • first, second, third, and etc
  • following this further
  • further
  • furthermore
  • indeed 
  • in addition (to)
  • in fact
  • last, lastly
  • last but not least
  • likewise
  • moreover
  • not only …, but also…
  • not to mention
  • or
  • then, too
  • too
  • what is more


Example: Likewise the speaking section, the TOEFL® iBT writing papers are sent to the ETS's Online Scoring Network where they are scored by certified raters.

To give examples


  • for example
  • as an example
  • chiefly 
  • for instance
  • especially
  • illustrated with
  • in this case
  • in another case
  • in particular
  • in this situation
  • including
  • markedly 
  • namely
  • notably
  • on this occasion 
  • particularly
  • in particular
  • specifically
  • such as
  • take the case of
  • to demonstrate
  • to illustrate
  • as an illustration


Example: Most of English Language Exams are divided into separate parts that test different language components. For example, TOEFL iBT has four sections – Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing. Some other exams, including Cambridge FCE, CAE and CPE include Use of English or Grammar in their formats. 

To clarify the information you have presented


  • above all
  • I mean 
  • in other words
  • in this case
  • that is to say
  • to put it in another way
  • under certain circumstances
  • up to a point
  • what I mean is


Example: To put it in another way, five are the components that you should pay attention where preparing for any English Language Test – Reading, Listening, Speaking, Writing, Use of English or Grammar. 

To present consequence


  • accordingly
  • as a result
  • consequently
  • for this reason
  • for this purpose
  • hence
  • in that case
  • otherwise
  • so then 
  • subsequently 
  • therefore
  • thus
  • thereupon
  • under those circumstances 
  • wherefore


Example: As a result, most ESL (English as a Second Language) books and training programs are organized around this kind of division and closely follow this format. 

Remember, using transitional words and phrases help you write or speak organize your thoughts in more logical and understandable way. Transitional words clarify the conjunctions and transitions between ideas and thoughts and thus facilitate the reader or listener’s comprehension. From that perspective, the right usage of transitional words will pay back with a better score on your TOEFL iBT exam.

 

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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Speaking Answer Key شنبه 1389/06/13 15:7

TOEFL iBT Speaking Answer Key / Samples

Questions 1 and 2: Familiar Topics

1.Listen to the sample response.

I don't see myself as a person who will ever fully retire. I like to keep busy, and I have trouble relaxing. If I want to spend a few hours reading or listening to music I usually schedule it into my date book. I find that if I don't force myself to relax from time to time I always find some sort of project or work to do. Though I may not want to hold a paying job in the medical field when I am older, I will probably volunteer in a third world country rather than retire. I'm lucky that I've found work that I am interested in. If I grow tired of my job I may feel differently when the time comes.

2.Listen to the sample response.

If I had the choice between an online course and a course at a college or university, I would choose the classroom setting. I believe it takes a lot of discipline to study at home, and I am a person who is easily distracted. While my roommate has no problem turning off her phone while she is studying, I'm the type of person who worries that I will miss an important call. Even when I'm studying for exams or writing essays, I have to do my work in the library where I can't be interrupted. In addition I learn better when I hear somebody presenting the information than I do just by reading it. While the convenience of an online course is attractive to me, I know my grade would suffer.

3.Listen to the sample response.

The woman also read the article that the man refers to. Though she agrees that there is an error in the article regarding the lack of recycling in the residences, she believes that more should be done to improve the recycling program on campus. In particular, she is concerned that there is no effort being made to recycle paper on campus. She thinks that the university could pay for a better recycling program by including some of the cost in the student fees.

4.Listen to the sample response.

The reading defines obsessive compulsive disorder by touching briefly on the difference between obsessions and compulsions. While it mentions that the average stressors in daily life do not cause the obsessions of OCD sufferers, the lecture expands on this fact, giving clear examples of obsessions and compulsions. The professor claims that the disorder is not taken seriously enough because people tend to misuse the term "obsessed". As in the reading, the professor points out that the obsessions for OCD sufferers are not realistic. They are more like persistent thoughts that don't make sense. In addition, the compulsions are generally unrelated to the obsessive thoughts.

5.Listen to the sample response.

In this conversation the student is concerned about her statistics class. She is doing poorly and is considering dropping the class. She feels that the professor speaks too quickly and she is unable to note the important points. The professor offers a few suggestions. First he suggests bringing in a tape recorder. Secondly he suggests getting a tutor. Finally, the professor says that it might be possible to get into the class she wants without his course if she talks to the psychology teacher about it. I prefer the final option. In my experience some prerequisites do not pertain to the course that requires them. Statistics is quite a general course that may be useful but is not always necessary.

6.Listen to the sample response.

From this discussion we learn that the color of an iceberg can help identify its age. An iceberg that is made mostly of snow and has plenty of air pockets appears white to the human eye. We know this is a relatively young iceberg because the ice is not too thick to reflect the light back out. In contrast an iceberg that has been around for a much longer time is made up of compressed ice with very little air. The observer of this older iceberg will see blue rather than white, because only the stronger wavelengths of light can reflect back out.

Source: http://whatistoefl.blogfa.com/ by Keyvan Majd

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